Thursday, March 12, 2020
How to Add Privacy and Security to Your Account + Content WeÃ¢â¬â¢ve all heard stories about [insert any terrible instance of brand sabotage]. Stories of a little too much trustand not enough security. The stories of users deleting content or publishing a blog post too soon (by accidentor not) or someone with incorrect permissions seeing something they shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢tÃ¢â¬ ¦ And the worst casesomeone leaving a company (usually not by choice)Ã and doing everything they can to take it down with them. Not cool. How To Add Privacy To Your Calendar and Secure Your [Awesome] ContentThe information age can be a scary place, one where your brandÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation is always on the line. Here at , we want to give you peace of mind and know that the security of your calendar is our absolute *TOP*Ã priority. Plus, we make it easy to manage your calendarÃ¢â¬â¢s users, roles, and permissions. With you can: Add multi-layered privacy to your calendar with custom user + role permissions. Know exactly what each team member has access to (at any given moment). LimitÃ the visibility of content on your calendarÃ by managing the access of multiple teams or users, so they can focus on the content that matters to them (nothing more, nothing less). Control your contentÃ by granting users read only, drafting or full editing rights. Easily restrict publishing rights to specific users, so you can rest assured your content gets published (the right way) every time. Because our goal is to keep your calendar marketing effortsÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦AND your brandÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation as secure as possible. Ã°Å¸âÅ' Add Multi-Layered Privacy To Your Calendar YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve got quite a few people inside your calendar. Ã¢â¬ ¦.with each person contributing in a different way. Which is great! But, since they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t all in the sameÃ roles, each person on your team might need varying permissions when it comes to accessing your calendar. With , you can easily create + edit custom user permissions based on the level of access you want a specific person to have. For example, your intern probably needs WAY less access to all the content on your calendar than your marketing manager. Or if you work in an agency with multiple clients on the same calendar, you can easily set up both your clients and agency team members with custom user permissionswithout making it difficult for everyone to work inside your calendar. And creating a layer of privacy, especially when there may be confidential items that may be listed on your calendar, is a nice option to have. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s real nice. Get Started Using Custom User Permissions For exampleÃ¢â¬â¢s sake, letÃ¢â¬â¢s pretend youÃ¢â¬â¢ve just hired a new employee. To invite a new user and customize their permissions, head into your Settings, and select Ã¢â¬Å"TeamÃ¢â¬ from the left hand side bar.Ã Once you get to the Team Page, select Ã¢â¬Å"Invite New User.Ã¢â¬ Choose Ã¢â¬Å"Invite via EmailÃ¢â¬ and add an email address. (skip the WordPress Author piece for now. If they end up being able to post blogs through your calendar, you can add a WordPress Author at a later time). Then, select the role (or level of access), you want to give each new team member. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re just starting with team permissions, the only option youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have is to assign the new person as a Ã¢â¬Å"UserÃ¢â¬ or a Ã¢â¬Å"Guest.Ã¢â¬ Once you start creating custom roles, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s where you can get really specific with access levels. For a breakdown of the difference between a Ã¢â¬Å"userÃ¢â¬ and a Ã¢â¬Å"guestÃ¢â¬ Ã check out the comparison below: If you choose to give Ã¢â¬Å"userÃ¢â¬ access, your team member can also be given Ã¢â¬Å"adminÃ¢â¬ Ã access by turning the button from Ã¢â¬Å"OFFÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"ON.Ã¢â¬ Users without admin access can only access Social Profiles in the calendars settings (no other settings options will be visible). So, they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t even be able to see the Team Settings page that youÃ¢â¬â¢re in now unless they are given Ã¢â¬Å"adminÃ¢â¬ access. Once you have successfully added a new user, you will be directed back to the main Team page. Here you will notice that you can view all the varying levels of access each current team member has, and easily edit the permissions of a specific user if needed. For instance, if you have to let someone go from your team, you can use the team permissions page as a kill switch by quickly editing their permissions to Ã¢â¬Å"read-onlyÃ¢â¬ so you can protect your content and your calendar. *whew* With , you can even create custom role permissionsÃ within your team settings. Basically, custom role permissions allow you to create a permissions template if you have (or are going to have) multiple people you consider to be in the same role. This saves you time from having to manually assign the same permissions in the future. ^^#timesaver So by creating custom roles, the next time you hire a project manager or social media intern, itÃ¢â¬â¢s quick and easyÃ to set them up with specific levels of access in your calendar. Besides being able to add internal users (and customize their permissions) to your calendar, you can also add an outside user as a Ã¢â¬Å"GuestÃ¢â¬ within your calendar (Team Pro or Multi Calendar plans only). Why is that awesome? If someone is added as a Ã¢â¬Å"GuestÃ¢â¬ the only thing they can view and edit is the project they have been assigned to by a user inside the calendar. For instance, if you are working with another company on a single campaign or blog post, you might not want them to see everything your team is working on. Easily set up custom user and role permissions within your calendar to give yourself peace of mind. Waithow does it do that?! Because now you will know if each person in your calendar has the correct amount of access they need to effectively work on their content saving you time AND your precious mental energy. No more worrying for you! And thatÃ¢â¬â¢s pretty awesome. Limit The Visibility Of Content On Your Calendar You use your calendar for EVERYTHING. Every marketing campaign, every blog post, every social promotion, and every task. But sometimesÃ¢â¬ ¦ there might be private or confidential informationÃ that you still have to plan forÃ¢â¬ ¦ or you want to limit who can see what because itÃ¢â¬â¢s not relevantÃ to themÃ¢â¬ ¦ And thatÃ¢â¬â¢s when the idea of sharing everything on your calendar with everyoneÃ¢â¬ ¦ suddenly becomes a little less than ideal. But luckily, with you can easilyÃ limit the visibility of content on your calendar. For instance, if you work at a company with multiple teams, you may want each team to see only their specific content (to eliminate clutter on their calendars, or, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know, to actually keep a top secret project, a secret). And if youÃ¢â¬â¢re an agency with multiple clients on your calendar, you can use this feature to easily adjust each clientÃ¢â¬â¢s visibility settings so they can only see the content they should seeand nothing more. For example, if your client is Ã¢â¬Å"Pho ShizzleÃ¢â¬ Ã you are able to create a new role within your team permissions and actually call it Ã¢â¬Å"Pho ShizzleÃ¢â¬ Once youÃ¢â¬â¢ve given the role a name, simply select the permission settings that will work best for you: Content: Decide what they can see (content they own or are following versusÃ all content on the calendar), if they can create content, edit it, delete content, or if they can publish the content. Social Messages:Ã Decide which profiles they are allowed to see or post from. Events + Notes:Ã Decide if they are allowed to create, edit, or delete events or notes. ReQueue Groups:Ã Decide if they will be able to add, modify or delete ReQueue Groups AND ReQueue Messages. Team Filtering:Ã Decide if they can interact with other team members (and who). Admin Settings:Ã Decide if they are a social, team, or full admin of the calendar. And while using a single calendar and creating custom roles is pretty darn effective, if you are an agency with a lot of clients, we recommend a Multi-Calendar plan as your simplest + easiest solution for keeping client work separate fromÃ otherÃ client work. The the biggest perk of being able to create custom roles? As the admin, you can still see EVERYTHING that is going on within your calendarwhile everyone else can only see the specific content that matters to them. Sometimes there are things you donÃ¢â¬â¢t want everyone to see. Like a top secret feature launchor another clientÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing campaignÃ¢â¬ ¦ or that super-hilarious blog post called the Ã¢â¬Å"Top 10 Reasons to Open a Hot Dog StandÃ¢â¬ youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been planningÃ¢â¬ ¦(no judgement here). Whatever your reason, easily limit the visibility of content on your calendar with . Ã°Å¸â¢Å' Control Your Content Remember when it was just you managing your calendar? Every editpublishing dateÃ¢â¬ ¦social messageit was up to you to make the final call. Times may have changed (or maybe never existed if youÃ¢â¬â¢ve always worked in a large team), but that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean you need to give up complete control of your content. With , you can grant users read-only, drafting or full editing rightsÃ when it comes to your content. For instance, if you work in an agency and have a client who has access to your calendar, you can easily control the amount of access based on what works best for your partnership. Or, if you work in a large company and your boss (or bosses) only needs to be able to view documents (but will never make any edits directly in the calendar), itÃ¢â¬â¢s simple to give them Ã¢â¬Å"read-onlyÃ¢â¬ access. You can even restrict publishing rightsÃ to specific users (or single user) so you can rest assured your content gets published the right way,Ã every time, by someone you trust. Simply find the user you want to adjust within your Ã¢â¬Å"TeamÃ¢â¬ page, and decide the level of publishing access you want to give them throughout your [entire] calendar. Why are restricted publishing rights useful? LetÃ¢â¬â¢s say you have an intern and want them to have the ability to draft content, but unable to publish to your blog or social accounts. (Recommended!) Or you want to limit the users who can publish (for accountabilityÃ¢â¬â¢s sake), because youÃ¢â¬â¢ve established a good amount of trust in them and donÃ¢â¬â¢t want so many hands in the mix. And letÃ¢â¬â¢s be realyouÃ¢â¬â¢re also trying to avoid some pretty terrible marketing mishaps: *like when Rhode Island accidentally posted a promo video about their state with footage from Iceland on their Twitter account* (someone could have checked, right) OR *when someone accidentally posted on the US Justice DepartmentÃ¢â¬â¢s Twitter account instead of their own*Ã (signing in and out of accounts could be avoided if you scheduled your social through just saying) Tisk, tisk. Plus, as an extra level of control, you can easily check and see who posted anyÃ of your content using our handy Security Access Logs (located within your Team Settings). We know that the security of your calendar is SUPER importantÃ¢â¬ ¦ and we also know how much of a task it can be just managing all the settings on your calendar. Which is why we make it EASY to manage your permissions. Set it and forget it OR easily update a user at a momentÃ¢â¬â¢s notice. Just call yourself Security CaptainÃ¢â¬ ¦ because with , your marketing calendar (and your brandÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation) has never been safer.
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Exploring Human Nature and Destruction - Essay Example For some it is to do in good for one another, for others it is just to make it another day. Human nature consists of moments of love, hate, passion, living and dying. In this case, it is destruction, both in war conflict and from the standpoint of considering suicide to end an internal war. A person is born and a person will die but it is what the person does in between these two milestones that is of importance. The purpose of life is unknown but while these writers look at a reflection of human nature, only each individual can narrate their own story. When looking at the references that William Manchester discusses, he analyzes the concept of war. He includes in his essay about Okinawa the concept that war has existed for several years. Manchester uses World War II as a reference discussing how it came to an end eventually with the United States being crippled in the middle of war by its opponents. Using a landing force, a fleet of 1200 ships as part of the United States invasion i n Okinawa, the people on these ships were subjected to attack from other ships in the sea and from the dropping of deadly bombs from the air. When analyzing the two enemy forces, the goals were similar: to destroy one another. The Japanese planned to attack the United States Marines as they approached the island by sinking the ships. Alternately, the Marines were on a mission to attack the Japanese by creeping onto shore and driving them into the sea (Manchester). While this is just a simple narrative of a historical event that deeply impacted the United States, it is evident that human nature was at work here. Both Americans and Japanese fighters were together in combat but were working against each other. Both sides of the war saw their opponents as enemies and the goal was to kill or destroy. Each side desired to win the victory of the war. Human nature is at work here because by just where a person was born determined which side they fought on. While many outsiders rarely know t he purpose of a war, the goal is always for their country to be victorious. It is like rooting for a team, wanting to see the opponents walk away, holding their heads in shame. Everyone wants to be on the winning team. Though human nature is not necessarily to kill, it is to fight for one's own side. When looking at this issue further, these U.S. Marines did not know each other when they walked into battle but they became teammates, fighting for their country, fighting for their lives and most of all, fighting for each other. Outside of war, they may have had nothing in common but in war, they let down all guards and help each other toward a common goal. Being an American or being Japanese gave each person in this war an identity. This defines battle lines and identifies the enemy. Marines more than likely had a feeling of hatred toward their Japanese enemies and as a result, aimed toward destroying them. When it comes to human nature, what goes on in one's mind that causes destruct ion? In war, it is the motive to devote oneself to their country and pray to come home to their families alive. However, some people self destruct as well, fighting a battle against themselves. This issue is discussed by Hoagland's essay discussing Ã¢â¬Å"Heaven and Nature,Ã¢â¬ and describes suicide. A person that is contemplating suicide is instead at war with themselves. Human nature is a different force here where a
Saturday, February 8, 2020
Total quality management (TQM) is a systemic approach to productivity enhancement - Essay Example Although, above stated definitions with relative explanation satisfy the introduction of TQM; International Standard Organization1 defines it as, "TQM is a management approach for an organization, centered on quality, based on the participation of all its members and aiming at long-term success through customer satisfaction, and benefits to all members of the organization and to society." For an organization to implement TQM, it must maintain above stated quality standard in all aspects of its business. This requires ensuring that things are done right way the first time and that defects and waste are eliminated from operations. Globalization makes quality take place. As the companies get bigger, there is an increasing demand for Just In Time Management. This makes things move faster, while further approaching towards globalization while being responsible for the removal of tailback in manufacture along with resulting in high quality production. Therefore, it can be said that the impact of globalization on quality is positive. On the other hand, globalization has also brought some most important confrontations for quality2. The augmented struggle among organizations across the world is more forceful than before. This leads to the fact the producing the products at the lowest cost may win in the end; which implicates that the marketplace may only be motivated on price factor and not on all other factors which put in value to a product (Layne Gobrogg, journal article). When the marketplace grows to be sensitive to price only, service and quality suffer. Hence, what the world has seen in the recent times is exactly what has been discussed. Quality oriented textile industry in Pakistan has almost completely shifted to China which produces products at the lowest possible cost and minimal quality. This reflects the exact impact of how globalization affects quality, whether it be directly or indirectly. Traditional Management Styles vs. Quality Focused Management Styles: Total quality management has changed the traditional management style forever. Traditional style of management focuses on internal activities while assuming that products or services provided by organization are good in quality. However, total quality management focuses on the customer as the ultimate decider of the quality. Perhaps, the major difference between total quality management and traditional management style is the delegation of the authority with responsibility of the quality to the various levels of management, particularly to the middle level management. For this, TQM requires very high level of teamwork, unlike traditional style of management. Along with above stated differences, the other major difference is that TQM makes decisions on evidences of facts and figures, unlike traditional management style. Perhaps, this is the reason why TQM has been more successful than originally thought. Application of TQM: Before implementing TQM, top level management must have total faith in its implementation process3. TQM can be implemented in an organization through a step wise strategy. My strategy for Starbucks will be as following; 1. Appointment of a representative for coordinating the TQM implementation pr
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
From Production Line to Segmentation of Production Essay 1. Introduction Competition has changed: Technical Innovations, globalisation of markets, cultural shifts within societies and new and efficient competitors put strain on the organisation of production within a firm. Many markets display a state of saturation that leads to a change in growth: Not quantitative growth is what firms are aiming at, but qualitative growth (Wildemann 1998:1). The improvement of the production is one way to establish qualitative growth its means are twofold (at least): First, it is possible to change the production in order to produce a better output with less cost. Second, it is possible to synchronise production and market as to enable the production to react quickly to changes in the market, i.e. the consumer behaviour. One way to reach both aims is to reorganise the production, i.e. to segment the production: With the establishment of product oriented production units a cheaper production is possible (Maier 1993: 25). Economics owe the focus on the segmentation of production with all its advantages to Wickham Skinner (1969, 1974 and 1986). With his book The Focused Factory he provided the ground for what is nowadays discussed under the headline: segmentation of production. Skinner did not develop a new insight in efficient ways to produce; he transferred to the American and European auditorium what has been practiced in Japan since the beginning of Industrialisation. This paper deals with change; with the change in the way cars are manufactured. A car manufacturers production unit until now divided into different production lines has to be transformed into segmented production. This is a big change; a change, which has to be dealt with in other words, it, is a case for change management. The scope of this paper is therefore not limited to displaying the advantages of a segmented production (which nevertheless will be done in chapter 2), but extends further to the management of the respective change. Chapter 4 is devoted to the change management: How should the new organisation of production be implemented? What problems may occur? What solutions to the problems can be provided? These and more questions will be put and answered in chapter 4. In chapter 3 a brief overview of change management within the (alleged) broader framework of project management will be given. Chapter 5 sums the results obtained in the previous chapters and evaluates the va lue of change management. 2. Efficient production with segmented production units Segmentation of production is according to Wildemann a holistic approach, aiming at a better market- and product orientation of the firm (Wildemann 1998: 31). Therefore, it is necessary to link production units to a specific product. By that, the relation to Skinner is establish, who discovered the focussed factory for the Western Economies: a companys competitive strategy at a given time places particular demands on its manufacturing function, and, conversely () the companys manufacturing posture and operations should be specifically designed to fulfil the task demanded by strategic plans (Skinner 1969: 138-139). A focussed factory means accordingly flexible reactions to market changes and the cost efficient realisation of strategic plans, e.g. the development and introduction of new products. The focused factory is not a big factory. It is rather a small one where the different production units are linked to a specific segment of the market a specific product: A factory that focuses on a narrow product mix for a particular market niche will outperform the conventional plant, which attempts a broader mission (). Its [the factorys with the narrow product mix] equipment, supporting systems, and procedures can concentrate on a limited task for one set of customers. () Such a plant can become a competitive weapon because its entire apparatus is focused to accomplish the particular manufacturing task demanded by the companys overall strategy and marketing objective (Skinner 1974: 114). Given the fact (provided it is a fact) that smaller firms or factories are compared to bigger firms or factories and with respect to costs and production better off, it is not surprising that there is a considerable trend to segmenting the production. Furthermore, transaction costs within a small or segmented firm are smaller compared to the bigger ones. A transaction is the delivery of a property or good via an interface that can be technically divided. One activity ends another starts (Williamson 1990:1). While crossing the interface a sample of costs is produced costs that can be at least in parts avoided: The aim of a segmentation of production is to disentangle production units and capacity. Large units should be divided in small units. Teamwork should be establish small teams giving the individual employee more responsibility. This should result in more autonomy of the individual employee, and boost his or her motivation, thereby increasing the quality of the work done by the employees. In Germany, it was Dietmar Tress who conceptualised for the first time smaller units as an organisational structure. Smaller Units, so his thesis, reduce the time that is needed to produce a product. The lesser time it takes to produce a good or a product, the better the competitiveness of a firm, the better its ability to deliver goods and the smaller the amount of capital needed to produce the respective good or product. While evolving his thesis Tress realised the reasons that stood against an effective production. The reasons mentioned by Tress are: division of labour, old patterns of reasoning and bureaucracy (Feser 1999: 19). Having carved out the problems, Tress submit his solution: He proposes that all necessary functions (for the production) and the aimed link between product and demand should be concentrated in a single hand and that the production flow should be kept within reasonable limits (Tress 1986: 184). According to Tress it is decisive that the production flow is c lear, understandable, and transparent. A single employee should be able to single out his or her contribution to the product (Tress 1986: 185). Segmenting the production further provides capacity utilisation and to reach that goal teamwork is needed: Small groups of employees should work in a self-responsible way within decentralized teams. Furthermore, those teams should take over different tasks. At this point the interrelation between the discussion on segmenting production and the discussion on human resource management becomes obvious. According to Baron and Kreps (1999: 3) Human Resources are the key to organizational success or failure. Human resource management including the concepts of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation may be seen as the countermovement to the alienation of the worker form the product of his work, as observed by Karl Marx in the 19th Century: Workers who contribute more broadly to a final product () are more apt to identify with a product and to reflect pride in its quality (Baron Kreps 1999: 317). Identification with a product raises the working morale, which means that the work satisfaction goes up. Worker or employees, who are content or satisfied with their work, work better. The determinants enabling this comfort are established by segmenting the production. And that is, where the problem starts: How can a segmented production be implemented? How can a factory divided in production lines become a focused factory divided in small working units or teams? The question at hand is a question of change management or project management. In the next part, the project of change will be unfolded. 3. Projects for managing change Change is something that happens all the time and everywhere. But change within a firm or to put it more scientifically change within economics appears to be a frightening prospect. Change cannot be left to itself; it has to be planned, controlled and coordinated. Problems, rising in the pursuit of change, have to be predicted, dangers for the project have to be identified and eliminated. All this is done by change management or within the (alleged) broader scope of project management. To put it differently, change management is the trial to direct change into the right channels. Project management is the trial to direct everything new within a firm into the right channels. It appears that there is not much difference between project and change management, one can almost say, they are different words meaning the same. A project is considered to be something unique, something that will not be repeated (Schelle 1999: 11). Project management means the totality of executive functions, the techniques, and means necessary to carry out a project. Replacing project by change, change management can be addressed as the totality of executive functions, techniques, and means that are necessary to alter something old into something new. At first it is according to most authors of the utmost importance for a change or project management to establish a structure plan, in which the implementation of whatever should be changed, is scheduled according to a time table connected with goals that have to be reached at a certain point in time. The structure plan is according to Schelle (1999: 93) a simple and useful tool. The structure plan is the meta plan. Apart from the structure plan there is the running order listing sub goals and so on. Once a project is initiated the control of the project is of crucial importance. A constant control is necessary to identify deviations from the plan or goal as soon as possible and to steer against unwanted consequences (NÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½chter 2003: 377). Project control in this sense means to identify problems, to solve the problems, to recalibrate the project after some deviations from the plan occurred and to rescue the goal in spite of serious problems. Problems may emerge from different sources: Externalities may cause problems: Green activists may occupy the land that is designated to host the new factory, due to a seldom species of warbler. The construction of the new building itself may cause problems: A building contractor may file for bankruptcy. A delay in constructing the new factory may lead to an explosion of the costs and so on. Apart form those externalities there are sources that nurture problems within the firm: Employees may fear for privileges, for their job or for loosing power. Resistance to the change may arise from different sources all linked to the fact, that men is unwilling to change what seems to be good and worked well until now. And to convince employees of the benefits that come along with the new way of producing one thing is needed: change management. 4. From production lines to segmented production: An example Company R wants to segment its production. Being a car manufacturer organized in different product lines the company wants to become a focussed factory by establishing two production units each producing a specific type of cars. While segment A is chosen to produce the mini from start to end, segment B should produce the sport car. At the start of the change, company R is organised as follows in part 1 of the company the car body is being build, in part 2 the car body is being varnished and in part 3 the different parts of the car are being assembled. In the future company R shall be structured as follows: in line A the car body of the mini is being build, varnished and furthermore, the mini is being assembled; in line B the car body of the sport car is being build, varnished and assembled; At the moment three interfaces exist within company R: Between the car body builder, the varnish, and the assembler. Between these three parts of the company a steady flow of material has to be ensured. Furthermore, all three parts of the company depend on different suppliers. In the past a bottleneck between car body builder and the varnish has become a rule resulting in a temporarily standstill. So the new structure of the firm should guarantee a full capacity utilisation, by reducing the logistic efforts necessary to provide each of the three parts of the company with its amount of supply to avoid a standstill of machines and employees. Moreover, the link between company R and its markets should become closer. At the moment the company produces a monthly number of cars irrespective of the demand. If the demand goes up, the employees have to work overtime to satisfy the demand. If the demand goes down, the employees do their daily stint and the cars that cannot be sold were stored causing storing-costs. And this is where the project change comes into being. 4.1. Planning the change There are a lot of variables that administer a certain influence on the project deciding whether it is going to be a success or a failure. According to Eckrich (2003) two of those variables can be dubbed as structural and cultural conditions imposed by the environment within the firm or company. Structural conditions relate to the hierarchy within the company, while cultural conditions describe the way the employees within a company treat each other. Eckrich distinguishes cultural conditions into behaviour, attitudes and values, a distinction that reminds at concepts indigenous to social psychology. While social psychologists quarrel with each other on the relation between attitudes and behaviour (some of them even asking if there is any relation between both, cf. Six 1975, Bierhoff 1993: 280-288), Eckrich holds the opinion, that the behaviour of people is influenced if not determined by their attitudes, and by knowing the attitudes one can deduce the behaviour. Consequently, he recommends a questionnaire at the beginning of the change management project to discover the attitudes of the employees concerning the change of their working environment. Company R is a rather small company, employing 803 employees. It is best described as a company with flat hierarchies, stratified in management, departmental managers and masters. While the aim of this paper is to show the problems associated with the project change (or at least those that may be associated with the project change), I assume that the employees of company R take a critical stance to the change of the production, some of them even form a sort of resistance. Especially among the masters resistance is widespread. They fear they might loose responsibilities and some of them think they might even loose their job. The core of this paper is therefore concerned with what is called by Uebel and Helmke (2003: 415) escalations caused by individuals (personenbedingte Eskalationen). Escalations caused by individuals have to be distinguished from quantitative escalations and from qualitative escalations at least according to Uebel and Helmke (2003: 416). Of particular interest for this paper are escalations caused by individuals. (One might wonder if there are escalations which can be though of as being not caused by humans.) 4.2. Controlling the change Control is a matter of plan. To evaluate the progress of the project, the project manager has to look at the structure plan. He has to compare whether what has been reached is identical with what should have been reached. According to NÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½chter (2003: 395) this is crucial, since it is the only possibility to identify deviation from the plan. To serve the purpose of early warning system the structure plan must be enriched with data, with the amount of time worked on a particular (interim) goal of the plan, with the state of the art and so forth. With respect to company R these rather general advices come to life: Important for the success of the segmentation in the company is an additional qualification of the employees. Furthermore, their work after the segmentation will be varied, i.e. they will have more different tasks to fulfil. This is in accordance with the results of the human resource management saying that employees that are not tied up in their daily routines, but kept busy with a bunch of different tasks show a higher degree of motivation and in the end do a better job than employees tied up in their daily routine. Independently from the results of the human resource management the change in company R is more than some can bear. For some employees the additional qualifications they are expected to achieve are a heavy burden and for the masters it becomes clear that the new structure of the company can only be reached by taking away the responsibilities from the masters. And in the end, Angst (fear) arises, and An gst (fear) is the widespread cause for resistance. 4.3. The problems of change Angst (fear) has been identified as the main reason of those showing resistance to the project of change. Following Uebel and Helmke (2003: 424), Angst (fear) can be subdivided into fear for power and fear for subject. While those with fear for power oppose the project due to their expectation that they will loose power, which means in the first place influence within the company, those with fear for subject oppose the project due to their expectation that they will loose responsibilities. The distinction is not a sharp, but rather arbitrary one. It is not obvious that the loss of responsibilities is not accompanied by a loss of power. However, those with fear for subject are anxious that they might loose reputation, end up with a smaller budget and so on. It has to be mentioned that Angst is a rather peculiar word for what is meant by Uebel and Helmke. They describe the common place that change has its pros and its cons. While change brings some advantages, some advantages of the old times will be lost. In other words, change may become a trade-off or worse, change might mean redundancy. Therefore, it is obvious from the very beginning that change management has to deal with problems. Problems are not something that arises as a matter of bad circumstances. Problems are the natural companion of change. In company R there are problems. The change of the production modus has been scheduled for spring and that was a mistake. In spring the demand for sport cars is high and a high demand and a different work environment is too much. The employees faced with frequent delays and the necessity to work overtime is dissatisfied. Resistance rises to protest. It starts with unofficial meetings held be employees and ends up in strike. The production stands still and so does the project. Change, it seems, has stopped. Uebel and Helmke write a lot about Angst (fear) and the different shapes it may use, and the risks Angst holds for the success of the project. But, as is the fact in company R, what can one do, if the problems are that massive that the project can be doomed to failure? Uebel and Helmke provide no answer. Instead they pronounce the value of plans for the crisis. One has to formulate worst-case scenarios within those plans (Uebel Helmke 2003: 428). Worst-case scenarios may be back or forward oriented. Backward orientation means that the problems can be solved and the goal of the project can be reached. Forward orientation means the contrary. The project is a failure and the plan has to include the plan X the withdrawal with as less causalities as possible. This provides no solution for company R. Is the change from line production to segmented production a failure? Is there a possibility to carry on? Hansel and Lomnitz (2003: 131-134) mention that there are no possibilities to reduce resistance with respect to specific goals of projects: An employee who will lose his job will not act in favour of the proposed change. To expect that, is out-of-touch. Furthermore, there are employees for whom it is dubious whether they will win or loose in the course of the project. So: resistance is natural and the only way to deal with resistance is communication and information. Transparency is the golden rule. The employees should know what change would bring, why change is necessary (Hansel Lomnitz 2003: 134-135). Maybe information can lead to a good end for company R. Rumours are the cause for concern in company R. Rumours about the real aim of the project being a job killer. Other rumours concern plans to reduce salary suspecting the hidden intention behind the plan to segment production is to cut down salaries. Those rumours may be dealt with in an agency theoretical framework: The relationship of agency is one of the oldest and commonest codified modes of social interaction. We will say that an agency relationship has arisen between two (or more) parties when one, designated as the agent, acts for the other, designated the principal, in a particular domain of decision problems (Ross 1973: 134). Starting from here it has to be considered that both sides face some information shortcuts, with the employees having no distinct knowledge of the goals pursuit by the management and the management having no accurate assessment of the behaviour of the employees during the course of the project and thereafter: In the course of the action some problems may arise due to the fact that information is not fully spread. The problems are labelled within the Agency theory as averse selection, meaning that one cannot be sure, if what the principal or the agent claims to provide is in fact what he can provide, moral hazard, which means that an agent or an principal can defect after the contract is established and hidden intention, speaking for itself (Krapp 2000). This excursion trip into the fields of agency theory results in the knowledge that Hansel and Lomnitz are right: The solutions to the problems the agency theory analysis is usually a form of information included in a contract. (Leaving the monitoring of the agent by the principal and the bonding of both to given promises aside.) So information, i.e. the spread of information may be a possible escape from the deadlock for the project change of company R. First, as a signal of confidence the project manager has been dismissed. He has proven to be unable to manage conflict. Under his rule rumour mill flourished and the actual state of the (project) art is much behind the expected state. The new project managers first act was to hold a meeting with all employees and to tell every single employee what he has to expect. In the end he succeeds in cranking the project. 4.4. The change or the end of the project In the course of the project experiences and knowledge should be collected for further or future change management, so as to learn from the errors made. The end of the project is marked by stocktaking. What has been reached is confronted with what should have been reached. Company R is nowadays a car manufacturer with a segmented production and therefore able to adapt its production in short time to the demand of the market. The segmented production started some weeks later than it has been scheduled, which is owed to the problems reported above. But the policy adapted by the new project manager has proven to function. He has succeeded in creating a common spirit and calming down the moods. The fact that work will be much more varied after the change has increased the motivation of most employees, the success of the project has become the intrinsic motivation for those employees: According to this survey, a large percentage of employees seem motivated at work by something other than the compensation received. () 72% responded that theyd continue to work even if they were already financially comfortable for the rest of their lives. Half the survey respondents agreed with an item stating that what I do at work is more important to me than the money I earn' (Baron Kreps 1999: 101). There is a specific quality inherent to work, a quality that is different from the motive to make a living. Intrinsic motivation stands for the fact that some or many or most of the workers want to do a work that is interesting, sophisticated, and provides a certain amount of reputation. Some of the employees of company R realised that a segmented production goes along with new job opportunities, with more responsibilities, with a flexible work scheme and so forth. Those employees made the change to their own project, a project they wanted to support and did support. 5. About change and its management The aim of this paper is twofold: on the one hand the subject is change management. But change management is a general concept, which one can describe in general terms as did Uebel and Helmke (2003). The problem is, that general terms despite sounding good have nothing to say about the management of change. Therefore, an example have been chosen to elucidate what change management really is. Change of a car manufacturers production from production lines to a segmented production, has been chosen as an example. The segmentation of the production is expected to be a project of change management that can often be found in reality. This is due to the advantages a segmented production provides its users with: a more flexible reaction to the demands of the market and a less costly production. Having established the example used to exemplify the change management it was necessary to describe what is known as project management. Thereby, it could be shown that the topics of project management and change management are not different as they both deal with new things that should replace old things. So it has been decided to treat them as equal. Then company R has been introduced. Company R is a medium sized company with flat hierarchies and massive problems occurring during the course of the change from production line to segmented production. The problems or escalations as some dub them are related to individuals, individuals or employees who resist for different reasons the proposed change. To deal with resistance and to provide the ground for the new organisation of the production is the task of change management. And, it appeared, that the best way to manage change is by adapting an open communication policy. This is what Hansel and Lomnitz propose and what has been derived from a brief look at the agency theory: Both sides trying to establish a deal have an information deficit on their side. Both do not know, if their counterpart is opportunistic in the sense of Williamson (1990), i.e., that he is trying to cheat. This is what the rumour mills in company R produced: the segmented production is a fake used by the management to cut down salaries, sack employees and rationalize the company. In the end, the project manager had been sacked and the segmented production had been established. The key to the solution was information and intrinsic motivation. Information had been provided by the new project manager, telling the employees that no one will be sacked and that salaries go if anywhere than up. Furthermore, the hint that a new organisation of the production provides new opportunities for qualification and new responsibilities raised the intrinsic motivation of many employees. They made the change to their project and supported it. And at the end of the paper a rule for change management can be derived: For a successful management of change it is necessary to involve the employees and to improve intrinsic motivation. 6. Literature Baron, James N. Kreps, David M., 1999: Strategic Human Resources. Frameworks for General Managers. New York a.o.: John Wiley. Beer, M., Eisenstat, R.A. and Spector, B., 1990: The Critical Path to Corporate Renewal. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press Bierhoff, Hans-Werner, 1993: Sozialpsychologie ein Lehrbuch. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer. Burghardt, Manfred, 2002: Projektmanagement. Leitfaden fÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½r die Planung und Steuerung von Entwicklungsprojekten. Erlangen: Publicis Corporate Publishing. Feser, BjÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½rn, 1999: Fertigungssegmentierung. Strategiekonforme Organisationsgestaltung in Produktion und Logistik. Wiesbaden: Deutscher UniversitÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½ts-Verlag. Hansel, JÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½rgen Lomnitz, Gero, 2003: Projektleiter-Praxis. Optimale Kommunikation und Kooperation in der Projektarbeit. Heidelberg, Berlin, New York: Springer. Krapp, Michael, 2000: Kooperation und Konkurrenz in Prinzipal-Agent-Beziehungen. Wiesbaden: Deutscher UniversitÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½ts-Verlag. Lewin, K., 1947: Frontiers in Group Dynamics: Concept, Method and Reality in Social Science; Social Equilibria and Social Change. Human Realtions, 1 (1); 5-41 Maier, Denis, 1993: EinfÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½hrungsstrategien fÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½r Fertigungssegmentierung. Eine empirische Untersuchung. UniversitÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½t MÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½nchen: Dissertation. Marshak, R.J., 1993. Lewin Meets Confucius: A Re-View of the OD Model of Change. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 29 (4): 393-415 Mintzberg, H., 1978: Patterns in Strategy Formation. Management Science, 24 (9): 934-948 NÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½chter, Norbert P., 2003: Projektkontrolle. S. 375-392 in: Bernecker, Michael Eckrich, Klaus (Hrsg.): Handbuch Projektmanagement. MÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½nchen, Wien: R. Oldenbourg. NÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½chter, Norbert P., 2003: Projektsteuerung. S. 393-411 in: Bernecker, Michael Eckrich, Klaus (Hrsg.): Handbuch Projektmanagement. MÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½nchen, Wien: R. Oldenbourg. Rinza, Peter, 1998: Projektmanagement. Planung, Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½berwachung und Steuerung von technischen und nichttechnischen Vorhaben. Heidelberg, Berlin, New York: Springer. Ross, Stephen A., 1973: The Economic Theory of Agency: The Principals Problem. American Economic Review 63 (2): 134-139. Schelle, Heinz, 1999: Projekte zum Erfolg fÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½hren. Projektmanagement systematisch und kompakt. MÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½nchen: dtv. Skinner, Wickham, 1986: The Productivity Paradox. Harvard Business Review 64, 55-59. Skinner, Wickham, 1974: The Focused Factory. Harvard Business Review 52, 113-121. Skinner, Wickham, 1969: Manufacturing Missing Link in Corporate Strategy. Harvard Business Review 47, 136-145. Six, Bernhard, 1975: Die Relation von Einstellung und Verhalten. Zeitschrift fÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½r Sozialpsychologie 6, 270-296. Tress, Dietmar W., 1986: Kleine Einheiten in der Produktion: Wer wachsen will, muss kleiner werden. FÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½hrung und Organisation 55, 181-186. Uebel, Matthias F. Helmke, Stefan, 2003: Eskalationsmanagement in Projekten. S. 413-429 in: Bernecker, Michael Eckrich, Klaus (Hrsg.): Handbuch Projektmanagement. MÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½nchen, Wien: R. Oldenbourg. Wildemann, Horst, 1998: Die modulare Fabrik. Kundennahe Produktion durch Fertigungssegmentierung. MÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½nchen: TCW-Transfer-Centrum GmbH. Appendix 1 Theoretical Framework Phase Models of Organizational Change Any change process can be thought of as going through distinct phases or stages. The purpose of this section is to provide theoretical background information of phase models of change. Linear Models Linear models see the change process as linear, progressing from a present state, through a transition state to a future state. The implicit assumption is that the future state is more desirable than the present state. Lewin provided one of the early fundamental linear models of the change process. He observed that any living system is always in a state of change, but will tend toward a quasistationary equilibrium. (Lewin 1947: 15-16). The level of behaviour of the system at any moment is the result of two sets of forces: those striving to maintain the status quo and those pushing for change. When both sets of forces are equal, current levels of behaviour are maintained. In order to change the equilibrium, one can either increase those forces pushing for change or decrease those forces maintaining the current state. Lewin viewed the change process as consisting of three phases or stages (Lewin 1947: 34-35): 1. Unfreezing. This step involves the forces maintaining the systems behaviour at the current level. Unfreezing is accomplished by introducing information that shows discrepancies between behaviours desired by group members and those behaviours they currently exhibit. 2. Moving. This step shifts the system to a higher level of group performance. It involves developing new behaviours and attitudes through changes in structures and processes. 3. (Re-)Freezing. This step stabilizes the system at a new state of quasi-stationary equilibrium. It is accomplished through the use of supporting mechanisms that reinforce the new state, such as systems, structures and policies. The new equilibrium can thus be made relatively secure against change (Lewin 1947: 35). Circular Models While the linear models follow the European science, East Asian and Confucian traditions offer a very different theory of change. The model of change underlying Confucian philosophies was summarized by Marshak (1993). As shown in Figure 1, there is continual cyclical movement among the five elements that make up the universe. Movement is a natural process and occurs in a specific sequence. When it is out of balance or out of order, unfortunate consequences result. Thus in this model everything and everyone is interconnected and part of continuous cycles of change. Figure 1: Five agents cyclical change according to East Asian philosophy (source: Marshak 1993:399) Appendix 2 Theoretical Framework Overview of the Three Forces for Change In the literature of organizational change, there is a widespread disagreement whether change should be implemented top-down or bottom-up. Top-Down Direction Setting Top-down change is seen to have the advantage of a clear direction towards an end state, to provide the integrated perspective that only top management can provide and to promise rapid change. However, top-down change can often lead to resistance and lack of commitment from middle managers and employees who might feel that top management does not really understand the problem. With regard to the RM Division, it becomes clear that management follows a top-down approach. RM`s general managers take major decisions on new technology an workers are not included in the decision-making process. The result is a lack of commitment and machine operators use any means they could to beat the system. Bottom-Up Performance Improvement The other line of argument favours a bottom-up approach to change, as this seems to address many of the shortcomings of top-down change by actively involving employees in the change process. But also a pure bottom-up approach has its problems. It often lacks direction and a link to corporate strategy, it can lead to costly duplication of effort, it often leads to little transfer of learnings and it can be slow to get results (Beer et al. 1990: 68). The RM Division did not follow a bottom-up approach for implementing the change. It is worth mentioning at this point that the RM management missed, as a result of not actively involving the employees into the change process, to address the disadvantages of a top-down approach. In addition, the above-mentioned advantages of a bottom-up approach were not realized during the change process. Horizontal Process Redesign Recognizing the limits of the pure top-down or bottom-up approaches to change, some authors have therefore argued that the solution is to combine the two approaches (Beer et al.1990). A combination of the two approaches holds the promise of obtaining their respective benefits while minimizing their disadvantages. However, it is argued, that fundamental change requires not only top-down direction and bottom-up performance improvement, but also a third force for change: horizontal process redesign. Horizontal process redesign views organizations as made up of key processes that produce a result for the customer. It attempts to bring the benefits of process thinking to the whole organization and emphasizes the importance of redesigning a small number of core business processes that cross the traditional functional boundaries. Likewise, it can occur at three levels: across organizations, across functions and within functions (see Figure 2). Horizontal process redesign sees reengineering as a key activity at all levels of the organization. However, in order to avoid sub-optimisations, one should start at the top management by mapping out the high-level processes first. In this way, once the subprocesses are considered, their role within the higher level processes are clear. This was not being realized at the RM Division: Instead of defining and explaining the new processes to the workforce, only immediately prior to the introduction of the new technology management had explained to the workforce the basic principles behind automation, disregarding the need for understanding the new processes. Particularly a proper introduction of the new core processes across functions was neglected. These mainly included the fact that previously, operators were involved in setting and adjusting machinery and now were simply operating their machines. At the same time, the process control department was to take greater responsibilities, and to be expanded. Would management have explained the new processes properly, operators would have been clearer about their role in regard to the process control department. Instead they found themselves in a favourable position, performing wider functions than management expected of them. In addition, they could use non-optimum methods to achieve the best possible piecework rates for subsequent production and only reluctantly gave up any rights to use the controls. This all can be seen as a result of a missing explanation of the redesigned core processes to the workforce. The second major problem was that of re-establishing piecework rates on the new machinery, because operators were enjoying average earnings and resisted this move. At this point it would have been helpful to establish a detailed timeframe in which the phases of the change process are listed, in connection with the procedure of handling the piecework rates during and after each phase. The basic agreement, which was being made, did not serve this purpose.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Online Pornography as a Threat of Violence In 1994, a male University of Michigan student posted a sexually explicit short story to alt.sex.stories, a widely-read USENET newsgroup. (While USENET hosts are technically neither a subset nor a superset of the Internet, it, like the Internet, is a decentralized computer network, and the vast majority of its traffic passes over the Internet.) It is unclear whether anything would have happened to Jake Baker, who posted the story, had he not used the name and physical description of a female student who attended a class with him and either lived in the same dorm or nearby. The government tried to prosecute him on the basis that he had made a threat of violence against her, but eventually failed to achieve any remedy in the courts. An activist named Catharine MacKinnon contributed an amicus curiae brief to the proceedings, and has since stated that the government neglected to raise all the relevant issues in the case. She has also campaigned for laws to stop pornography. MacKinnon claims, in general, that pornography is violence. In this particular case, she argued to the court that the Baker pornography was the threat of violence. To back up her argument about his intentions, she used excerpts from his E-mail correspondence with a like-minded young man in Canada. E-mail is normally personal communication, and so it is harder to classify as a "threat" in the traditional sense of something communicated to the target, but her own argument is that the story itself was a threat and an instance of violence. (The appeals court dismissed the case on technical grounds mostly relating to the specificity of the threat.) It is clear that this story and others that Mr. Baker had been composin... ...d by someone who was probably just following scripts that had been taken from pornography, either directly or through the medium of society as a whole. Unlike this case, there are numerous instances where men actually use pornography as a means of control over women, or gain control over women by involving them in the production of pornography. Such social cost is high. The fact that U. S. citizens spend between eight and ten billion dollars on pornography each year(4) should be the final straw compelling us to be more careful individually and take appropriate measures collectively to stop this deadly plague. Notes: 1. 48 Hours, 18 Nov 1992 2. Ibid. 3. Legal brief by MacKinnon. www.nostatusquo.com/ACLU/Porn/Baker/sc.html, 26 Jul 2001 4. Thomas S. Monson. Liahona, Nov 2001, p.4. Salt Lake City: La Iglesia de Jesucristo de los Santos de los ÃÅ¡ltimos DÃ as.
Monday, January 13, 2020
The great American novel Ã¢â¬Å"The Adventures of Huckleberry FinnÃ¢â¬ by Mark Twain is about a white southern raised child named Huck Finn and a runaway slave, Jim, running away together. This novel is similar in ways to that of the novel Ã¢â¬Å"The Great GatsbyÃ¢â¬ by F. Scott Fitzgerald, which is about Ã¢â¬Å"the fabulously wealthy Jay Gatsby and his love Daisy Buchanan. Ã¢â¬ (Book Cover) The character Huckleberry Finn is similar to characters of Ã¢â¬Å"The Great Gatsby. Ã¢â¬ Huck Finn is similar to Jay Gatsby because of their lies about their families, their reasons for lying, and their frames of reference of what not to do. Huck Finn is also similar to Myrtle Wilson. This is due to the fact that both try to create and live their Ã¢â¬Å"adventurous fantasyÃ¢â¬ lives and also because while trying to make their fantasy a reality they quickly forget about important people and belongings. The character Huck Finn is similar to Jay Gatsby in two ways. The first way in which these characters are alike is between the lies they tell about their family. Huck FinnÃ¢â¬â¢s lies are about having a family and how Ã¢â¬Å"pap and me and all the family was living on a little farm down at the bottom of Arkansaw,Ã¢â¬ (Twain 75). While GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s lies are about how he has no family and how is the son of Ã¢â¬Å"some wealthy people in the Middle West Ã¢â¬â all dead now. Ã¢â¬ (Fitzgerald 65). The major similarity of this is that they create these fantasy families because they are ashamed of their real family in a way which leads them to create their view of a good family. Besides Huck FinnÃ¢â¬â¢s and GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s similarity in lies and their reasoning behind lying, these characters are also similar because they use the same type of person as a frame of reference of what not to do or become. Jay Gatsby uses his deceased friend, Dan Cody, as his frame of reference. Dan Cody, when drunk, would commit acts of Ã¢â¬Å"savage violence of the frontier brothel and saloon. Ã¢â¬ (Fitzgerald 100) and would have Gatsby jail him on the yacht because he knew what would happen once he became drunk enough. Gatsby barely drank anything because he saw firsthand what alcohol could turn you Prev Page into if you had enough of it in your system. Huck Finn uses his pap as his frame of reference of what not to do or become. Pap, while drunk, is exceptionally violent. Pap would chase Huck around the hut Ã¢â¬Å"with a clasp-knife, calling me the Angel of DeathÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Twain 22) and he would get Ã¢â¬Å"too handy with his hickoryÃ¢â¬ (Twain 18) which left Huck Ã¢â¬Å"all over weltsÃ¢â¬ (Twain 18). These frames of references of what not to become have helped the characters develop a more stable moral code. Other than Jay Gatsby, Huck Finn is also comparable to Myrtle Wilson in two ways. One characteristic these two characters have in common is that they dislike their real lives that they try to create and live these fantasy lives. Huck Finn never returns to reality and live his real life unless him and Jim are by themselves on the river. While he is on shore Huck always creates all these aliases with different backgrounds every time he meets new people or a new family. When Myrtle Wilson is with Tom Buchanan and her Ã¢â¬Å"friendsÃ¢â¬ in the apartment-homes in the West Hundreds she creates the fabulous fantasy life where she is just so care free and rich. While she lives this fantasy life she lets Tom make fun of her husband by imagining a picture entitled Ã¢â¬Å"George B. Wilson at the Gas Pump. Ã¢â¬ (Fitzgerald 33). She pretends that she has money when Mrs. McKee compliments her on the dress she is wearing and Myrtle is just shrugging off because this is something she wears when she Ã¢â¬Å"donÃ¢â¬â¢t care what I look likeÃ¢â¬ (Fitzgerald 31). In addition to their likeness in trying to live a fantasy life, Huck Finn and Myrtle share their ability to promptly forget about important people and belongings. This is evident with Myrtle when she buys the dog on her way to the apartment with Tom and Nick. As quickly as she buys the dog she forgets about it before the end of the party which is sitting on a table Ã¢â¬Å"looking with blind eyes through the smoke, and from time to time groaning faintly. Ã¢â¬ ( Fitzgerald 37 ) and not once has she gone to check to see if it is out of water, food, or even tries to take it out of that type of environment. For Huck the person he forgets about is his loyal and caring friend Jim. Whenever Huck is living one of his adventurous fantasy lives he never takes a pause to think about what Jim is doing, feeling, what type of danger he might be in, or what he could be going through right now while heÃ¢â¬â¢s having Prev Page the time of his life or getting himself in deep trouble on the shore. Conclusively the great American novel Ã¢â¬Å"The Great GatsbyÃ¢â¬ by F. Scott Fitzgerald has characters that share characteristics with that of Huck Finn from the novel, Ã¢â¬Å"The Adventures of Huckleberry FinnÃ¢â¬ by Mark Twain. Huckleberry Finn is like Jay Gatsby because they both lie about their family because theyÃ¢â¬â¢re ashamed of their real on and want what they feel would be a better family for them. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re also alike in the way that they use the same type of person as a frame of reference of what not to do, which helps them build a more durable moral code. Myrtle Wilson is also comparable to Huck Finn on account of that they try to create and live fantasy lives, and then they get so caught up in their fake lives that they forget about the important people and belongings in their lives.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Ideology and Reality in the Movie, The Matrix The matrix, as presented in the eponymous film, operates as an Althusserian Ideological State Apparatus (ISA). The Matrix1 presents a world in which the state [as] a machine of repression is made literal where robots rule the land (Althusser 68). It is true that they rule by force (sentinels and agents) and these constitute the Repressive State Apparatus, but their primary force of subjugation is the matrix, their ISA. The film traces the path of one man, Neo, in his painful progress from the ideology of the matrix to the real world, or the ideology of the real.2 The matrix, unlike the ideology of the real, is explicitly defined along Althusserian lines as an ISA.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦These are the world outlooks of religious ideology, ethical ideology, legal ideology, political ideology, etc. (87). It is important to realize that ideology here is a completely imaginary construct, though from within any particular ideology, it is indistinguishable from the borders of the real conditions of...existence (87). Althusser identifies a second thesis regarding ideology: Ideology has a material existence (Althusser 89). In spite of its necessarily imaginary nature, ideology is only manifested through physical action. This materiality introduces the notion of the subject. The existence of the ideas of [the subjects] belief is material in that his ideas are his material actions inserted into material practices governed by material rituals which are themselves defined by the material ideological apparatus from which derive the ideas of that subject (92). Which is to say that, a subjects intellectual ideas are only manifested through the physical actions that are inherently rooted in the ideology. It is impossible to express thought without action, and it is impossible to act without ideology. Thus, ideology becomes not only the imaginary relationship to reality, but also the physicality of reality. Being both the idea of reality and the material mani festation of such, ideology then becomes indistinguishable from reality, leading to Althussers use of both termsShow MoreRelatedSimulacrum And Simulations And Simulacra And Science Fiction1598 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestalking with someone, but in reality you were simply pressing down on your phone and watching the pixels on the screen move. According to Jean BaudrillardÃ¢â¬â¢s ideologies, you were the mere product of a simulation. In Ã¢â¬Å"Simulacra and SimulationsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Simulacra and Science FictionÃ¢â¬ , author and sociologist Jean Baudrillard explains this phenomenon by exploring the concept of simulacrum and simulations. 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